The plague brought a definitive end to the gaiety in Western Europe. The system of domination was already in trouble, but black death fell in much of Western and Central Europe around 1500. Severe depopulation and migration of people from the village to the cities has led to a severe shortage of agricultural labour. In England, between 1350 and 1500 villages were abandoned. Feudalism in 12th-century England was one of the most structured and well-established systems in Europe. The king was the absolute «owner» of the country in the feudal system, and all nobles, knights and other tenants, vassal, only «guarded» country by the king, who was thus at the top of the feudal pyramid. Roland gage karl the Great of his loyalty: Roland (right) receives the Durandal sword from Charlemagne (left). From a manuscript of a gesture song, around the 14th century. Francois-Louis Ganshof`s classic version of feudalism describes a series of reciprocal legal and military commitments that existed under the nobility of warriors and revolved around the three key words of masters, vassals and fiefdoms. All in all, a lord was a nobleman who held the country, a vassal was a person who came from the Lord in the land, and the country became known as a fiefdom. In exchange for the use of the fiefdom and the protection of the Lord, the vassal would do a kind of service to the Lord.
There were many various land possessions, consisting of military service and non-military service. The corresponding duties and rights between the Lord and the Vassic with regard to the fiefdom form the basis of the feudal relationship.  This «fragmentation of powers» was not systematic throughout France, and in some counties (such as Flanders, Normandy, Anjou, Toulouse), the counts could retain control of their countries until the 12th century or later.  Thus, in some regions (such as Normandy and Flanders), the vassal/feudal system has been an effective tool of ducal and comic control, linking vassals to their masters; but in other regions the system caused considerable confusion, especially since vassal could hire two or more men and often mortgaged. In response, the idea of a «master liar» (where commitments to a Lord are considered superior) was developed in the 12th century.  It could also include the vassal that provides «advice,» so that if the Lord were before an important decision, he would invoke all his vassals and hold a council. At the manor level, this may be a fairly mundane issue for agricultural policy, but also the conviction of a gentleman for offences, including the death penalty in some cases. With regard to the king`s feudal court, such deliberation could include the question of the declaration of war.
These are examples; Feudal customs and customs varied according to the period and place in Europe; Examples of feudalism. The term feudal derives from the medieval Latin word feodum. Feodum`s etymology is complex with several theories, some of which indicate a Germanic origin (the most widespread sight) and others an Arabic origin. Originally, in medieval Latin American documents, a land grant in exchange for service was called Beneficium (Latin).  Later, the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents.  The first evidenced instance dating back to 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to a hundred years earlier.  The origin of the Feudum and why it replaced Beneficium is not well established, but there are several theories that are described below.  While modern writers such as Marx emphasized the negative qualities of feudalism, the French historian Marc Bloch asserts that peasants were an integral part of the feudal relationship: while the vassals performed military service in exchange for the fiefdom, the peasants did physical work in return for Dener, thus obtaining some usefulness, despite their limited freedom.